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Yosef Dhu Nuwas, a Sadducean King with Sidelocks

Yosef Dhu Nuwas, a Sadducean King with Sidelocks.
By Ben Abrahamson and Joseph Katz
Published 2007


Traces the history and fortunes of the hellenizing Jewish family of the Tobiads from their Persian roots, to their founding of a petty kingdom at ‘Iraq al-Amir, to the nabatean wars, to the Tubba kings of Himyar; explores 3rd to 5th century Arabia as an extension of the Second Commonwealth, and a direct descendant of the Tobiad petty kingdom; also covers his loss of a replica of the Ark of the Covenant adorned even today with the Tobiad/Himyar dove, now buried under a church in Axum, Ethiopia. Also discusses the derivations of Saracen, Mushreqoon and "Dhu Nuwas".


  1. The Tobiads
    1. Tobiah under King Jehoshaphat 873-849 BCE
    2. Tobiads in the Lachish ostraca
  2. Declaration of Cyrus 538BCE
    1. The return and initial cooperation, 538 BCE
    2. Plans to build a Temple in Jerusalem
    3. Building a Temple in Jerusalem
    4. Darius the king issued orders
    5. Tobiah crowns Joshua as High Priest in 520 BCE
    6. Completion of Second Temple 515 BCE
  3. Appearance of Ezra, 458 BCE
    1. The proclamation and assembly
    2. Heated confrontation with Nehemiah and the Judeans, 445 BCE
    3. Tobiah accused Nehemiah of rebellion
    4. Militarily threatened the Judean community
    5. Attempt to overthrough Nehemiah
    6. Tobiah retained strong ties to the Judean community
    7. Tobiah gained a foothold in the temple precinct
    8. End of Nehemiah's office as governor of Judah, c. 430 BCE
    9. Sanballat and Darius Codomannus 336-330 BCE
  4. The 'Elephantine papyri
  5. The Zenon papyri
    1. Estate-owner and petty prince of Trans-jordania
    2. The Tobiads In 'Iraq Al-Amir
    3. Geographical boundary of the Tobiads
    4. Persian Provinces in Transjordan
    5. Religion of the Tobiads
    6. Conclusion
  6. The Maccabean period
    1. Relations with Alexandria
    2. The Two Accounts
    3. Modern Views
  7. Antipatris and Herod
    1. Herod's Judeo-Arab Kingdom
    2. Herod of Chalcis (d. 48 AD)
  8. The Himyarites, Tubbas and Kindah
    1. Tubba Revolt & Annexation of Nabatea, 106 CE
    2. Crisis of the Third Century and Palmyra
    3. Zenobia
    4. Reconquest by Aurelian, migration of the Azdites
    5. Bilqis the "Queen of Sheba"
  9. Shamir Yuhar'esh II Tubba', 275 CE
  10. Yasir Yuhan'im III
  11. Tharin Yuhan'im
  12. Serving the Kings of Himyar 275CE-525CE
  13. Malki Karab Yuha'min, c. 378CE
  14. Abu Karib As'ad I Tubba', r.390-420CE
  15. Jews in Kyrgyz
  16. Conversion to (Rabbinic) Judaism
  17. Seige of Yatrib
  18. Satih and Shiqq
  19. Qusai ibn Kilab ibn Murrah (Qusayy), c. 400-480
  20. Hassan I Yuha'min Tubba', r.420-450CE
  21. Expedition to Iraq
  22. 'Amr Tubba', Regent of Himyar, 450CE
  23. 'Abd Kulal, Chief of Himyar, r.~460-467
  24. As'ad II Tubba' ~440-r.450-518
  25. Al-Harith, General of As'ad II Tubba'
  26. The Royal House: Hassan II, Shamir al-Janah, and Ya'fur
  27. Ya'fur
  28. Mazdakite pesecution
  29. Shamir Dhu al-Janah, ~495-517
  30. Shamir's marriage to the daughter of Huna V, 27th Exilarch
  31. Marthid-ilan Yanuf Aslam, d.~516
  32. Lakhi'athah Yanuf Dhu Shandtir, d.518
  33. Yosef Asher Dhu Nuwas (King with beautiful Sidelocks) r. 518-525 CE
  34. Najran
  35. Christianity in Arabia
  36. Relations between Himyar and Abyssia
  37. Israel Yaakov (Sharah'il Yaq'ub) Dhu Yaz'an
  38. Bibliography
  39. The Rulers of Sheba and Himyar
  40. The Tobiad / Tubba' Dynasty
  41. The Tobiad / Tubba' Dynasty, (cont')

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