Standing (עמידה) Hebrew Qam, `Amidah, Arabic Qiyam
The prayer is recited standing with feet firmly together, and preferably while facing Jerusalem. In Orthodox public worship, the Shemoneh Esrei is usually first prayed silently by the congregation and is then repeated aloud by the chazzan (reader); the repetition's original purpose was to give illiterate members of the congregation a chance to participate in the collective prayer by answering "Amen." The rules governing the composition and recital of the Amidah are discussed primarily in the Talmud, in Chapters 4-5 of Berakhot; in the Mishneh Torah, in chapters 4-5 of Hilkhot Tefilah; and in the Shulchan Aruch, Laws 89-127. According to the Haddith: Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 56, Number 664: Narrated 'Aisha: That she used to hate that one should keep his hands on his flanks while praying. She said that the Jew used to do so.
- This receives confirmation in the New Testament where it is said, "The Pharisee stood and prayed" (Luke 18:11); and "they love to pray standing" (Matthew 6:5).