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Correspondence between Islamic Calendar and its Jewish Counterpart

Although the Islamic Calendar has undergone two distinct changes (discontinued intercalation and frozen commutation), is still possible to align the Islamic Calendar to its Jewish counterpart (see Table 10 below).


The holidays of Ras as Sana (Rosh Hashanah) and Roz e Ashura (Yom Kippur) can be found in Muharram, even though Safar was originally the Sacred Month. Minor events such as the Creation of Adam and ritual bath of Erev Yom Kippur can perhaps be found in altered form. The deletion of the month of Elul and the commutation of Safar and Muharram could also explain a shift of Dahwul Arz from 25 of Elul to 25 of Dhu al Qa'dah.

It is significant that the Jewish Holidays of Succot (Feast of Tabernacles), Purim and Chanuka cannot be found in their corresponding place. Purim and Chanuka are post-Biblical so they could have been dropped as is the Karaites custom today. What is interesting is that In place of Succot we find the traditional date of the changing of the Qiblah from Jerusalem to the Holy Kaaba. The changing of the Qiblah marks a conscious, deliberate changing of traditional Jewish practice. Other possible dates of the “changing of Quiblah” are the 15 of Rajab and the 15 of Shabaan, corresponding to Purim and Pessach (Passover), the former not being found and the latter being deprived of all Jewish traditional practice. “Chanuka” if kept by Arabian Jews would have been eventually overshadowed by Milaad-Un-Nabi (Prophet Mohammed's Birthday), and any ‘correspondence’ with the 25th of December and the Birth of Jesus would be pure speculation.

Before the deletion of Elul, the month of Cheshvan would have corresponded with Rabi al-Awal. It is tradition Jewish practice to pray for Rain, record the passing of the Flood, and pray if there is a drought during this month. Rabi al-Awal too is etymologically related to “first rains”.

The correspondence between Lailat al Baraat (Night of Emancipation) and Pesach (Passover) has been mentioned above. The Sefirah mourning period consists of 49 days from Pesach (Passover) to Shavuoth (Pentecost), however there are differing customs as to the degrees of mourning during that period. Many oriental Jews observe heightened mourning during the month of Iyyar which corresponds to Ramadhan. There is a similarity even in the Sefirah custom of counting the 49 days of the “Omer”. In Jewish tradition each day must be counted distinctly and individually. Similar to this most of Islamic jurists think that the intention "I will fast for this approaching month of Ramadan" is not legally enough, since the intention to fast must be formulated each night for the following day, i.e. "I will fast for Ramadan during this day".

The 18th of Iyyar is very interesting because until now we have assumed that the Jewish holidays were transformed into Islamic holidays because of the historical record attesting to the observance of these holidays hundreds of years prior the advent of Islam. But Lag BeOmer (the Revelation of the Zohar), if it corresponds to Lailat-el-Qadr (Revelation of the Qur’an) would indicate the reverse. The Zohar was not known publicly until several hundred years after the advent of Islam.

There seems to be a correspondence between Shavouth (Pentacost) and Eid al Fitr, both marking the end of the mourning period. Lastly, for hundreds of years after the destruction of the 2nd Temple, the only Jewish pilgrimage consisted of the 9th of Av pilgrimage to the Mount of Olives to mourn over the ruins of Jerusalem. Previous to this, the Pilgrimage to Jerusalem had always been for the “Chag” Holidays of Succot (Tabernacles), Pesach (Passover) and Shavuoth (Pentacost). It appears that due to some specific reason this “Chag” pilgrimage to Jerusalem was changed to the “Hajj” pilgrimage to Mecca.

Table 10 contains a correspondence between the Islamic Calendar and its Jewish counterpart.

Muharram al-Haraam (Tishrei)


  • Major Holiday
  • Minor Holiday
  • Traditional Event

Proposed correspondence, not indented

1. Muharram al-Haraam

(means sacred, c.f. Cherem)

1 Ras as Sana (Hijri New Year)
   1 The Prophet Idris lifted to heaven

   3 Joseph saved from well

   5 Moses crossed the Red sea

   7 Revelation to Moses on mountain

   9 Yonah came from whale
   9 Moses, John and Mary were born

10 Roz e Ashura (Fast of the Tenth)
10 Adam was created
10 Noah’s ark rested on Mount Ararat
   10 The fire became cool and safe for Abraham,
   10 Jesus ascended to the heaven
   10 Imam Husain A.S and family was killed
10 This is the day on which the Qiyaamah (doomsday) will take place.
10 Whoever takes bath in the day of 'Ashura' will never get ill.

   15 Capture of Khaibar (or 24 Rajab), 7 A.H.
   16 Qiblah direction faced in prayers changed from Jerusalem to the Holy Kaabah (or 15 Rajab, or 15 Shabaan)
   17 Punishment on on the people of Elephant (soldiers of Abraha)


1 Rosh Hashanah
1 Adam was created
   2 Rosh Hashanah (2nd Day)
   3 Fast of Gedaliah

   9 Erev Yom Kippur (ritual bath)
10 Yom Kippur
10 Future ‘Day of Judgment’

   15-21 Succoth (Feast of Tabernacles)

17 Noah’s ark rested on Mount Ararat


Safar al-Muzaffar (Cheshvan)

2. Safar al-Muzaffar

(whistling of the wind, c.f. Shofar)

   28 The Passing of the Prophet Muhammed (pbuh)


   7 Prayer for Rain

   17 Beginning of the great Flood
   17 Prayer for Drought

Rabi al-Awal (Kislev)

3. Rabi al-Awal

(first rains)

   1 Medina Migration

   9 Eid e Zehra (Killers of Imam Husain were punished)

12 Milaad-Un-Nabi (Prophet Mohammed's (pbuh) Birthday for Sunni Muslims)
   12 The Prophet received in Medina

   15 Building of First Mosque

   16 Night Journey (or 17 Ramadhan, or 7 Rajab)

17 Milaad-Un-Nabi (Prophet Mohammed's (pbuh) Birthday for Shia Muslims)

   22 Battle against Bani An-Nadhir


25-02 Chanuka


Rabi al-Thaani (Tevet)

4. Rabi al-Thaani

(second rains)


   8 Fast of Translation of the Bible into Greek
   9 death of Ezra
   10 Fast of Tevet


Jumaada al-Awal (Shevat)

5. Jumaada al-Awal

(dry, 1st month of summer)

   6 The battle of Bani Salim

   10 The battle of Camel


   15 Tu bi-Shevat (New Year for Trees)


Jumaada al-Thaani (Adar I)

6. Jumaada al-Thaani

(dry, 2nd month of summer)

   1 First Revelation (Cave Of Hira)

   15 Hajaj Destroyed Kaaba

Adar I

Rajab al Murajjab (Adar II)

7. Rajab al Murajjab

(means majestic, great, honored, valuable)

   1 Boarding of Noah's Ark

   7 Imam Musa Kazim Day
   7 Night Journey (or 16 Rabi al-Awal, or 17 Ramadhaan)

13 Birthday of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib
   [15 Qiblah direction faced in prayers changed from Jerusalem to the Holy Kaabah (or 16 Muharram, or 15 Shabaan)]

   23 Imam Al-Hasan bun Ali (PBUH) killed by poisoned dagger

   24 Victory of Khaybar

   27 Lailat al-Ma'raj (Ladder)
   Roz-e-Besat (Ascent of the Prophet)

Adar II

   [1 Death of Moses, according to Josephus]

   3 Second Temple was dedicated.

   7 Birth and Death of Moses

   9 Fast for arguments of schools of Hillel and Shammai

   13 Fast of Esther (originally a festival called Nicanor Day)
14 Purim
   15 Shusham Purim

   16 Nehemiah (5th BCE) Feast of rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem

   20 Fast of Honi ha-Me'aggel (1st BCE) miraculously evoked the rain

Shabaan al Muazzam (Nisan)

8. Shabaan al Muazzam

(means branch)

   8 Starting Of Ghaibat-E-Sugra

15 Shab e Baraat, also Lailat al Baraat (Night of Emancipation)
   15 Birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdi, Shias believe him to be the twelfth, final and current Shia Imam and Messiah
   15 Noah was saved from the flood
   [15 Qiblah direction faced in prayers changed from Jerusalem to the Holy Kaabah (or 16 Muharram, or 15 Rajab)]

   19 Battle of Banil Mustalaq between the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Khuza'a


   1 Deaths of Nadab and Abihu

   10 Death of Miriam the sister of Moses

   14 Fast of Firstborns
15-21 Pesach (Passover)
   16 Sefirat Ha’omer

Ramadhaan al Mubarak (Iyyar)

9. Ramadhaan al Mubarak

(means heat)

1 Start of Month Long Fast

   6 The Torah was sent down to Moses

   10 Mecca was conquered

   13 The Evangel was sent down to Jesus

   17 Night Journey (or 16 Rabi al-Awal, or 7 Rajab)
   17 Angle descended on the Holy Prophet (PBUH) at cave of Hiraa.
   17 Nuzul Al-Qur'an Battle of Badr, 2 A.H.

   18 The Psalms was sent down to David

   21 Jesus was lifted up to the sky
   21 Moses died on this date
   21 Joshua died on this date
   21 Passing of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib

23 Lailat-el-Qadr / Shab-e-Qadr (Last third of Ramadan)
(Qur'an began to be revealed, one of the qader nights, in last ten days of ramadhaan)
27 Nuzul Al-Qur'an (17th Ramadan in Malaysia)


1 Start of Sefirah Mourning Period

18 Lag Ba’omer
 Revelation Of Zohar

   26 Nisan, Death of Joshua

Shawwaal al-Mukarram (Sivan)

10. Shawwaal al-Mukarram
   Muslims encouraged to fast six more days, as-Sitta al-Bīḍ (the white six)

1 Eid al Fitr
2 Eid al Fitr (2st Day)
3 Eid al Fitr (3st Day)
   1 Revealed to the bee in making honey.

   6 The Holy Prophet (PBUH) conquered Mecca in the eighth year A.H

   8 Yawm al Gham

   15 Battle of Uhud, 3rd A.H
   16 Battle of Hamraa Al-Asad, 3rd A.H
   17 Battle of the Ditch (Al-Ahzaab), 5th A.H.

   30 Allah destroyed people of Aad.


   3-5 Sheloshet Yemei Hagbalah, preparation for Mount Sinai

6 Shavuot


Dhu al Qa'dah (Tammuz)

11. Dhu al Qa'dah

(means to sit)

   1 God promised Moses (peace be upon him) after thirty nights'

   5 Abraham and Ismail (PBUH) carried up the pillars of the Baitul Haraam

25 Dahwul Arz
Earth was sent into orbit
Abraham the Friend (PBUH) was born.
Jesus son of Mary (PBUH) was born

   29 God sent down the Ka'aba, 25 A.H.?


   17 Fast of Tamuz
   Moses smashed the first tablets
   2nd Temple sacrifices ended
   Romans set up an idol in Temple

25 Elul, Creation of world


Dhu al Hijjah (Av+Elul)

12. Dhu al Hijjah

(means pilgramage, c.f. Chagg)

   3 Allah Accepted Adam's Dua

   7 Musa obtained victory upon magicians.

   8 Yaum at-tarwiya, the 'Day of Watering',
   The pilgrim prepares his own water store for the succeeding days
   9 Imam Husain departed Mecca to Karbala

9 Roz e Arafat
   9 Ibrahim was rescured from fire of Namrud
   9 Musa made his successor Yushau
   9 Isa made his successor Sham'un As-Safa
   9 Sulaiman appointed Aasif bun Barkhiya

10 Eid al Hajj
(Day of Hajj / Pilgrimage)
deep, meaningful connection among Muslims. Strengthen unity and seek solutions come to know the enemies of Islam and of Muslims. Ramyeh Jamareh ceremony: throwing stones at the devil)
11 Eid al Adha (2nd Day)
12 Eid al Adha (3nd Day)

   18 Eid al Ghadeer
   (Carvan parting near spring/ghadir of Khum)
   18 Shiite claim Prophet appointed Ali successor

   24 Eid al Mubahila
   24 Prophet's invocation curse with Christians of Najran

   25 Nuzool e Surah Hal Ataa
   (Gave charity to needy people)


   1 Death of Aaron, brother of Moses.

9 Fast of Av

15 Wood Offering
   15 Tu Bi-Av (Marriage Festival)
   15 Tribes first permitted to intermarry
   15 Dead of the battle at Betar buried

   18 Fast when western light in Temple Menorah went out in the days of king Ahaz