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The Islamic Jewish Calendar

 
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abrahamson



Joined: 01 Mar 2009
Posts: 19

PostPosted: Mon Jan 25, 2010 10:35 am    Post subject: The Islamic Jewish Calendar Reply with quote

The Islamic or Hijra calendar is made up of 12 lunar months. Traces of Jewish holidays like Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Pesach (Passover) and Shavous (Pentacost) are still evident in this calendar. However, because of structural changes in the Islamic calendar, the Jewish and Islamic celebration of those holidays coincides only once in about 33 years.

1. Muharram al-Haraam = Tishrei

Ras as Sana (Hijri New Year) = Rosh Hashanah
Roz e Ashura (Fast of the Tenth) = Yom Kippur

2. Safar al-Muzaffar = Cheshvan

3. Rabi al-Awal = Kislev

4. Rabi al-Thaani = Tevet

5. Jumaada al-Awal = Shevat

6. Jumaada al-Thaani = Adar I

7. Rajab al Murajjab = Adar II

8. Shabaan al Muazzam = Nisan

Lailat al Baraat (Night of Emancipation) = Pesach (Passover)

9. Ramadhaan al Mubarak = Iyyar

Start of Month Long Fast = Start of Sefirah Mourning Period
Lailat-el-Qadr = Lag Baomer (Revelation Of Zohar)

10. Shawwaal al-Mukarram = Sivan

Eid al Fitr = Shavuos

11. Dhu al Qa'dah = Tammuz

12. Dhu al Hijjah = Av+Elul

9 days before Arafat (no haircuts, clipping nails, etc) = 9 days (same)
Roz e Arafat (pilgrimage) = 9th of Av (last pilgrimage after destruction of Temple)

It is known that the Jews of Arabia felt that they were the true mourners of Zion and carried customs of mourning for the destruction of the Temple to extremes not matched by Jews elsewhere. And we can assume that the mourning for the Temple influenced pre-Islamic culture to some extent.

But even so, it is surprising to find one of the most holy days of the Islamic calendar -- the 9th of Dhu al Hijja, the Day of Arafat, the height of the Hajj pilgrimage corresponding to the the Jewish fast day of the 9th of Av (which commemorates the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE). And the fast of Ramadan to be based on the Jewish Sefirat haOmer which among other things is a time of mourning for the hundreds of thousands killed after Bar Kochbas failed revolt in 132 CE, exactly "70 weeks of years" before the Hijra in 622CE.

A detailed explanation of the transformation of the Temple Calendar into the Jewish and Islamic calendars can be found here
http://www.alsadiqin.org/en/index.php/The_Islamic_Jewish_Calendar
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sandrela



Joined: 28 Jan 2014
Posts: 1

PostPosted: Tue Jan 28, 2014 5:53 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Shulchan Aruch (Code of Jewish Law) says this should be done "in the manner of the Ishmaelites (Muslims)" do it today.
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Nazzam



Joined: 08 Feb 2014
Posts: 9

PostPosted: Sat Feb 08, 2014 8:13 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

About the days of the week; can anyone provide me a source wherein the pre-islamic Arabic names of the weekdays are presented?

I know friday was called '3rubta' after the Syriac counterpart. But how was it called before jewish or christian influence?

Although I haven't found a source yet where this is confirmed, I find it very plausible it was yawm as-sadiis (the sixth day).

Check the comparison;

Akkadian:

ūm issēn
ūm itta
ūm alāi
ūm erbe
ūm ḫami
ūm ee (sixth day)
ūm sēbe

Hebrew:

yom rishon יום רישון
yom sheni יום שני
yom shlishi יום שלישי
yom rvi3i יום רביעי
yom ḥamishi יום חמישי
yom shishi יום שישי (sixth day)
yom shvi3i יום שביעי (original Hebrew name; seventh day, later under influence of the Torah turned into יום שבת)

Aramaic:

yom ḥad יוםא חד
yom tineyn יום תנן
yom tlitay יום תליתאי
yom rvivay יום רביעאי
yom hamishay יום הםישאי
yom shtitay יום שתיתאי (sixth day)
shvat qudsha שבה כדשא (holy day, under jewish influence)

ḥad b-shabba ܚܕ ܒܫܒܐ
treyn b-shabba ܬܖܝܢ ܒܫܒܐ
tlath b-shabba ܬܠܬ ܒܫܒܐ
arb3a b-shabba ܐܖܒܥܐ ܒܫܒܐ
ḥammesh b-shabba ܚܡܫܒܫܒܐ
3rubta ܥܖܘܒܬܐ (under influence of judaism changed into 'day of sabbat eve')
shabta ܫܒܬܐ

Post islamic Arabic week:

yawmu l-aḥadi يوم الاحد
yawmu l-ithnayni يوم الاثنين
yawmu th-thulathaai يوم الثلثاء
yawmu l-arbi3aai يوم الاربعاء
yawmu l-khamiisi الخميس يوم
yawmu l-jumu3ati الجمعة يوم (day of congregation)
yawmu s-sabti السبت يوم

According to my hypothesis, yawmu l-jumu3ati الجمعة يوم (day of the congregation) friday, had to be originally يوم السديس and
yawmu s-sabti السبت يوم (day of shabbat) saturday, had to be originally يوم السبيع

I would like to know your thoughts.
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